Voteview Manual



Voteview for the House of Representatives and Senate runs under
Microsoft Windows 3.x, Windows for Workgroups 3.x, Windows 95 and 98,
Windows NT, as well as compatible operating systems (i.e., OS/2's
Win-OS/2).  It was designed to be user-friendly, with
substantial on-line "help" available.   Voteview for the House
of Representatives is also available in a DOS version that has
only a subset of the functions contained in the Windows version.


Voteview is owned and distributed by Carnegie Mellon University and is provided for free as a service to the research community.

Please direct questions by email to Keith Poole (KPoole@uh.edu) or Howard Rosenthal (rosentha@princeton.edu) 1.1 Hardware Requirements Voteview for Windows requires the following minimum hardware configuration to run: IBM PC or compatible computer; Microsoft Windows 3.1; Mouse or other pointing device; 4 Megabytes of system memory (RAM); 500 kilobytes (Kb) of disk space for program files; Up to 40 megabytes (Mb) of disk space for House data files if using files from the hard disk (Depending on how many of the data files are installed). *** include Senate requirements *** The following items are optional: High resolution display (800 x 600 or higher) - recommended Windows supported printer Windows supported sound card 1.2 Installation You can install Voteview for Windows on a standalone system or on a LAN server. Standalone system installation: Make sure Windows is booted up and ready. 1. Insert the installation floppy disk or CD-ROM into the appropriate drive. 2. Click on the Program Manager menu item 'File,' then click on the 'Run' menu heading. 3. Type x:install where x is the drive letter you are using (e.g., 'a' for the A floppy drive). 4. Press enter or click on the OK button. 5. Follow the directions given in the installation program. LAN installation: Contact us via email. 1.3 Glossary of Key Voteview Terms Attachment A text note, a picture, or a sound that is associated with a particular House or roll call. Text attachments have a txt extension in their file name, picture attachments have a bmp extension, and audio attachments have a wav extension. They must be in the Voteview data directory. Text attachments can be edited from within Voteview. Balloon Help A form of on-line help available within Voteview that gives you quick instructions on each object of the current window. To activate balloon help, either select the menu item for it in the window or click on the button with a picture of a balloon in it. Then, move the mouse cursor to any area of the screen. As the mouse passes over objects in the window, balloon help pops up for that object. To end balloon help, click the left mouse button or press any key (it's there on the keyboard). Checked The presence of a check mark next to a menu item indicates it is active. Click A single press of the left mouse button. Double-Click Two clicks in quick succession. Dropdown Box A list box (see below) that displays its list only when the downward facing arrow in the box is clicked. It does, however, display at all times the item from the list that is currently selected. An example of a dropdown box are the color default dropdown boxes in the Edit Preferences window. Entry Area A rectangular area that accepts user input typed in from the keyboard. An entry area must first be active before it can accept input. A blinking vertical line within the entry area indicates that entry area is active. If you would like to activate an inactive entry area, click on it, or press the TAB key on the keyboard until you see the blinking vertical line. Greyed-Out The state of a button or menu item when it cannot logically be selected. It will appear grey instead of the usual black and will do nothing if clicked. Example: Clicking Rating on the View Matching Roll Calls window without having selected any roll calls. List Box A rectangular area that contains a list of things. If the list is too lengthy to fit within the confines of the box, arrow buttons and a scroll bar appear on the sides. Click on the upward facing arrow button to move up in the list, or on the downward facing arrow button to move down in the list. Click and drag the scroll bar to move quickly through the list. The position of the scroll bar indicates the relative place you are within the list. Multiple select A method to select multiple items from a list, performed as follows: a) Click and hold left mouse button on the first item you want and then move the mouse pointer up or down to select multiple adjacent items. This works for selecting items in a row. b) Click on the first item (don't hold) you want. Then press and hold the SHIFT key on your keyboard while you click on the last item you want. This selects these two items as well as every item in between. c) Click on the first item (don't hold) you want. Then press and hold the CTRL key on your keyboard while you click on another item you want. This selects these two items only. Note: These three methods can be combined as long as method (c) is used. For example, to select two sets of items where the items are adjacent to the other items in the set but not to the items in the other set, use method (a) to select the first set of items, then press the CTRL key, and use method (a) again for the second set of items. Select A click on a list or menu item to choose it. Toggle An action on a single item that reverses the previous action, like a light switch. Example: Clicking on the Ideological/US Map button in the View Matching Roll Calls window switches from an Ideological view to a US Map view and vice versa. 2.0 Running Voteview To run Voteview, double-click on the Voteview icon in the Program Manager. Alternatively, double-click on the voteview.exe file under the File Manager. To begin your search, click on the appropriate Search menu item under the File menu heading. Double clicking anywhere on the title screen is a short cut and accomplishes the same thing. 2.0.1 Title Screen Menu Description File Search Begins your Voteview search Edit Preferences Customize Voteview to your preferences for subsequent use Exit Quits Voteview Help Explain Get detailed help for the title screen 2.1 Voteview Preferences Voteview preferences are user-modifiable settings that the program uses from one session to the next. They can be changed to suit the desires of each particular user. The preference file, voteview.prf, is 270 bytes in length and is stored in the c:\windows subdirectory. The color defaults are changed as follows: 1. Click on the downward facing arrow on the desired dropdown box. 2. Click on the new desired color from the list. 3. Click the Save button. Roll call viewing defaults are changed as follows: 1. Click the square or circle to the left of the desired item. 2. Click the Save button. 2.1.1 Color Defaults Yea Color This selects the color of 'Yea' vote tokens and districts, as well as a 'Yea-Yea' cross-tab vote combination. Nay Color This selects the color of 'Nay' vote tokens and districts, as well as a 'Nay-Nay' cross-tab vote combination. NA Color This selects the color of 'Not Available' vote tokens and districts Yea Nay Color This selects the color of cross-tabbed vote tokens, for a 'Yea' on the current roll call, and a 'Nay' on the other one. Nay Yea Color This selects the color of cross-tabbed vote tokens, for a 'Nay' on the current roll call, and a 'Yea' on the other one. Starting Data Color This selects the color of the (relative) minimum imported quantitative variable data. A number of user-selected intermediary shades is created between this color and the ending data color, with shades closer to this color being on the relatively low end of the data. Ending Data Color This selects the color of the (relative) maximum imported quantitative variable data. A number of user-selected intermediary shades is created between this color and the starting data color, with shades closer to this color being on the relatively high end of the data. 2.1.2 Roll Call Viewing Defaults Lower Case Tokens A cross in the box to the immediate left indicates tokens will be displayed as lowercase, rather than uppercase letters. This may aid visibility in later Houses with many legislators. Ideological Map A filled in circle to the immediate left indicates the default view type an Ideological map. US Map Display A filled in circle to the immediate left indicates the default view type a US map. 2.1.3 Preferences Buttons Done This accepts your changes (if any) in Voteview's preferences for the current session, but does not save them on disk. Save This accepts your changes (if any) in Voteview's preferences for the current session, and saves them to disk for future sessions. Cancel This rejects your changes (if any) in Voteview's preferences for the current session, and goes back to the title screen. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 2.2 Voteview Search Selection The Voteview search type is selected from this window. 1. Click the option button of the code type you want to search with. The code types available are: none (strictly chronological), Issue, Clausen, and Peltzman. The default code type is None. 2. Select or multiple select the Houses you want to search. 3. Click the Start button to continue. Hint: If you are only selecting one house to search, double-clicking on a House is the same as selecting it and clicking Start. If the code type is None, skip to section 2.4. 2.2.1 Voteview Search Selection Buttons Start Continue with the search. Done Cancels this search and go back to title screen. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 2.3 Subject Code Selection 1. Select or multiple select the subject code you want to search through in the House you have selected. 2. Click Start to continue. Hint: If you are only selecting one subject code, double-clicking on it is the same as selecting it and clicking Start. 3.0 View Matching Roll Calls The list of roll calls which matched the requested search type (none, Issue, Clausen, or Peltzman), in the House(s) you selected is displayed in the upper list box. The lower list box is your viewing queue. It displays the list of roll calls you will be performing actions upon. 1. Select or multiple select the roll calls you wish to manipulate. 2. Click the Add button to add them to your viewing queue. Hint: Double-clicking quickly adds a single roll call to your viewing queue. 3. Click the appropriate button to perform the desired action. Note: Buttons and menu items greyed-out are not available to be used. This is because no roll calls have been selected, or two roll calls are not selected for a cross-tabulation. 3.0.1 Matching Roll Calls Menu Options Rating Generates a 0-100 rating for the legislators on the roll calls in your viewing queue. Track Displays the votes of selected legislators on roll calls in your viewing queue. Cross-Tab Cross-tabulates and displays two roll calls simultaneously Text Attachment Views a text note that has been attached to this House. Picture Attachment Views a picture that has been attached to this House. Audio Attachment Plays a sound that has been attached to this House. Note: Checked attachments indicates its presence. View Ideological Displays selected roll calls on an Ideological map with D-NOMINATE scalings. US Map Displays selected roll calls on a US map. Note: A checked view type indicates Voteview will display the roll calls you selected in the view type that is checked, but only when the Start button, the Cross-Tab button, or the Import button is clicked. Help Explain Gives detailed help for this window. Balloon Help Activates balloon help for this window. 3.0.2 Matching Roll Calls Buttons Top Half Except for Start, these buttons are general in their action. They don't act specifically on the roll calls in the viewing queue. Start Display the selected roll calls. Done Cancel the display of matching roll calls and go back to search type screen. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. Ideological/US Map Click this button to toggle how the selected data is displayed. Keyword Click on this button to narrow the list of matching roll calls by keyword(s). Import Imports and displays user quantitative variable files with a .qvd filename extension. Bottom Half These act specifically in concert with the contents of your viewing queue. Add Adds the selected roll calls in the upper list box to your viewing queue (lower list box). Remove Removes roll calls that are selected in your queue. Acts on selected roll calls in the lower list box. Select All Selects and adds every single roll call in the upper list box. Clear Eliminates every roll call in your viewing queue. Rating Generates a 0-100 rating for the legislators on the roll calls in your viewing queue. Track Displays the votes of selected legislators on roll calls in your viewing queue. Cross-Tab Cross-tabulates and displays two roll calls simultaneously 3.1 Keyword Search You can narrow or expand the list of roll calls that matched your initial search request by doing a keyword search. This powerful mechanism allows for complex searches, complete with Boolean logical operators, based on any piece of information about a roll call that is stored by Voteview. 1. Enter the keyword(s) you want to search for in the entry areas provided. Use the mouse or TAB key to move from one entry area to another. 2. Modify the logical operators in the secondary or tertiary entry areas as desired. 3. Click Start. Note: The list of roll calls that match your search request will be placed in the upper list box. 3.1.1 Keyword Search Entry Areas The first entry area is called the primary keyword entry area. It can be used alone. For the secondary and tertiary keyword entry areas to function, the logical operator dropdown boxes to its left must be changed from (none) to a valid operater for them to function. These latter two are logically evaluated (see section 3.1.4) in conjuction with the primary keyword entry area -- not with each other. Simply type the desired keyword in the entry areas. Use the mouse (click on the entry area you want to work with), or press the TAB key on your keyboard to move from one entry area to another. Note: Keyword searches are case insenstive -- there is no distinction in searching between upper and lower cases. 3.1.2 Keyword Search Dropdown Boxes To activate the secondary and/or the tertiary keyword entry areas, you must also define how they are to be related logically to the keyword in the primary keyword entry area. Initially, the logical operators for the latter two entry areas are set to (none), meaning that these entry areas are not active. To change the logical operator, click on the down arrow and then select the desired logical operator that is to be used with to relate the entry area to the right with the primary entry area. 3.1.3 Keyword Search Buttons Start Commences the keyword search. Cancel Cancels the keyword search and goes back to the View Matching Roll Calls window. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 3.1.4 Keyword Search Operators Voteview offers three logical operators for keyword searches; AND, OR, and NOT. And The And logical operator performs a logical conjunction between two expressions. If and only if both expressions evaluate as True, does the result evaluate to True. If either expression is False, the result is False. Figure 3.1.4.1 - And Truth Table Keyword 1 Keyword 2 Result True True True True False False False True False False False False This operator returns only those roll calls that contain both keywords. For example, searching for "Honesty" And "Jim Wright" in the 99th House will probably return no matching roll calls. Or The Or logical operator performs a logical disjunction between two expressions. If either or both expressions evaluate to True, the result also evaluates to True. Only if both expressions are False is the result False. Figure 3.1.4.2 - Or Truth Table Keyword 1 Keyword 2 Result True True True True False True False True True False False False This operator returns all those roll calls that contain either of the two keywords. For example, searching for "Increase Congressional Pay" Or "Increase Congressional Pensions" in most Houses will likely return a sizeable list of matching roll calls. Not The Not logical operator in the real world performs logical negation. If a single expression evaluates as True, the result is False. The reverse is true if the expression is False. In Voteview, the Not operator is treated as "And Not". This returns true only if the first expression is true and the second expression is false. Figure 3.1.4.3 - Voteview 'Not' (And-Not) Truth Table Keyword 1 Keyword 2 Result True True False True False True False True False False False False A better English word to describe the function of this operator is "without." The keyword search returns those roll calls containing a particular keyword but lacking a second one. An example would be the search request of ["Aviation" Not "Safety"] which returns all aviation bills not dealing with safety. 3.1.5 Triple Keyword Searches If three keywords are entered to be searched for, with two logical operators, the expression is evaluated for a match in this manner: ((keyword1 op1 keyword2) op2 keyword3) Where keywordx is one of the three keywords and opx is one of the two logical operators. 3.2 Importing Quantitative Variable Data User entered quantitative data can be imported into Voteview and displayed in a selectable number of shades on the US Map display (see section 5.0). These files have a qvd extension in their filename. 1. Click Import from the View Matching Roll Calls window. 2. Click Select on the Import window. 3. Select the desired data file from the Open window, then click Start. 4. Adjust the number of intervals the data is to be split into by clicking on the up or down arrow next to the number of intervals or enter the number directly into the entry box. The minimum is 2 intervals and the maximum is 50 intervals. 5. Click the cross-tab check box if you would like to cross tab the data with a previously selected roll call. 6. Click Start to the display the data. 3.2.1 Import Buttons Start Imports and displays the currently selected data file. Done Cancels the data import and goes back to the View Matching Roll Calls window. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Print Prints the data in the currently selected data file. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. Select Displays a list of all quantitative variable data files in the current directory and allows selection of data files in different directories. 3.2.2 Import Text Boxes There are two text boxes on the Import window. The upper text box displays the details that are contained within the currently selected data file. The lower text box displays the actual data in the data file, listed in the form: state number, district number, data for the district 3.2.3 Import Options Click on the upward facing arrow to increase the number of intervals the data will be split into (in other words, the number of shades) for display on the US Map. Click on the downward facing arrow for the opposite effect. Alternatively, the entry area with the number of intervals currently selected can be clicked and then another number of intervals can then be directly entered. If cross tab is selected (indicated by a cross to its left), then the imported data will be cross tabbed with a roll call that was previously selected in the View Matching Roll Calls window. Districts voting Yea will have a white filled circle in the center of the district, those voting Nay will have a black filled circle in the center of the district, and those not voting will have a grey filled circle. Note: If cross tab is greyed out, then a roll call had not been selected prior to opening the Import window. 3.2.4 Viewing the Import File Color Key The color key option under the US map displays differently than the regular color key (see section *). The imported quantitative variable data was divided on the main import window into a user-selected number of intervals (default: 8). These intervals are colored in the different shades between the Yea vote color for the lowest (default: red) and the Nay vote color for the highest (default: blue). Thus, if the value of data is closer to the low end, its shade will more closely resemble the Yea vote color and vice versa. To scroll through the intervals on the color key (if there are more than 8), drag the scroll bar by clicking on the rectangle and moving it left or right, click to the left or right of the rectangle, or click on the arrows to move between imported quantitative variable intervals. 3.2.5 Creating an Import File Creating a file to import into later Voteview sessions is fairly easy. Use a text editor and save the file with a qvd extension. The file must have the following elements: 1. The first line is the title of the data set. 2. Any subsequent lines are the "description" of the data set. This description can be of any length. To mark the end of the description, enter a "-" (hyphen) by itself immediately after the last line of the description. 3. The rest of the lines in the file will be treated as data. The format of the data is as follows: state number, district number, data for the district The following is an example quantitative variable data file that can be imported: Number of Widgets Sold, 1845-1846 It was a good year for the Widget Corporation, as sales climbed throughout the United States. Relatively poor results in Northern states were overshadowed by spectacular Southern gains in Widget sales. - 6,1,0 12,1,2000 21,1,4000 23,1,6000 24,1,8000 41,1,10000 48,1,12000 51,1,14000 3.3 Viewing Legislator Ratings Voteview for Windows has the capability to create 0-100 ratings for all legislators in a selected House based on any number of roll calls arranged in a model pattern. 1. Select the desired roll calls from which a rating will be generated from the View Matching Roll Calls window. 2. Click on the Rating button. 3. Adjust the roll calls into "proper" votes to form a model against which legislators' voting records will be compared. 4. Click Start. 3.3.1 Legislator Ratings Buttons Start Generates legislator ratings and displays them in a new window. Done Cancels legislator ratings and goes back to the View Matching Roll Calls window. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. Toggle Changes the model vote from yea to nay or vice versa. Hint: Double-clicking on the model vote performs the same function. Reverse Toggles all model votes. All Changes all model votes to vote indicated on the face of the button. 3.3.2 Ratings Results Once the model vote pattern is selected and Start is clicked, Voteview calculates ratings for every legislator in the selected House. The time needed to create such ratings is highly dependent on the number of legislators and the number of roll calls in the model. Voteview attempts to estimate the time to completion (ETC) and notes it as calculations proceed. After calculations are complete, the legislators and their individual ratings can be viewed and scrolled through. In the Info panel on the bottom of the Results window, the legislator with the highest rating is noted as well as the one with the lowest rating. Next to them in red are the number of legislators who match the rating of the highest (or lowest) rated legislator. In addition, the average (mean) rating of all the legislators is displayed at the botton of the panel. 3.3.2.1 Ratings Results Buttons OK Finishes displaying ratings results and returns to the main legislator ratings window. Save Saves the results of the legislator ratings request in a disk file (ASCII format). Print Prints the legislator ratings. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 3.4 Legislator Tracking Voteview can track the votes of one or more legislators in a selected House on the selected roll calls, allowing you to quickly ascertain the votes of these legislators on the desired roll calls. 1. Select the desired roll calls to track legislators' votes upon. 2. Click on the Track button. 3. Select or multiple select the legislator(s) you wish to track. 4. Click Start. 3.4.1 Legislator Tracking Buttons Start Tracks legislator votes and displays the results in a new window. Done Cancels legislator tracking and goes back to the View Matching Roll Calls window. Hint: Pressing the ESC key on the keyboard performs the same function. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 3.4.2 Legislator Tracking Results After Voteview finishes tracking legislator votes on the selected roll calls, it displays the results on a new window. The format of the entries are "vote, overall roll call result, roll call description." Multiple legislators are separated by a blank entry. The panel on the bottom right of the window displays the amount of yea, nay, or n/a votes for the legislator(s). Voteview can not handle more than some 1790 entries. The total number of entries in any tracking request is the product of number of legislators and the number of selected roll calls. 3.4.2.1 Tracking Results Buttons Done Finishes displaying tracking results and returns to the main legislator tracking window. Save Saves the results of the legislator tracking request in a disk file (ASCII format). Print Prints the legislator trackings. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 4.0 Ideological Map Voteview displays the current roll call vote (from the queue of selected roll calls) on a "spatial" map based on Poole-Rosenthal D-NOMINATE ideological scores. For an explanation of this ideological scaling, see "Patterns of Congressional Voting," American Journal of Political Science, 1991, pages 228-278. 4.0.1 Ideological Map Menu File Save as... Saves roll call data to a disk file in ASCII format. Spreadsheet Output Saves roll call data to a disk file in ASCII format ready for spreadsheet import. Print Prints roll call data to a selected printer. Print Map Prints the Ideological Map itself to a selected printer. Options Roll Call Info Displays detailed information about the currently displayed roll call. Statistics Displays roll call statistics. Cross-Tab Statistics Displays roll call statistics for cross-tabulated roll calls. Inquire Toggles 'inquire' mode for discovering legislators on the Ideological map. Find Circles a particular legislator on an Ideological map. Text Attachment Views a text note (if any) that has been attached to this roll call. Picture Attachment Views a picture that has been attached to this roll call. Audio Attachment Plays a sound that has been attached to this roll call. Redraw Redraws the Ideological map from scratch. US Map Display Displays the current roll call on a US Map. Note: Checked attachments indicates their presence. View Next Skips to the next roll call in the selected roll call queue. Previous Skips to the previous roll call in the selected roll call queue. First Skips to the first roll call in the selected roll call queue. Last Skips to the last roll call in the selected roll call queue. Jump to... Jumps to a user-selected roll call in the selected roll call queue. Errors Only Views D-NOMINATE errors. Not Available Views 'not available' votes Color Key Displays the color key to the various symbols on the map. Help Explain Gives detailed help for this window. 4.0.2 Ideological Map Buttons Done Finishes viewing roll calls on the Ideological map. Info Displays detailed information about the currently displayed roll call. (See section 4.2.1) 4.1 File Options Voteview can output roll call information to a disk file (in either straight ASCII or spreadsheet-ready ASCII format) or to a connected printer. This information includes the following fields on individual legislators: 1. House Number 2. ID #1 3. ID #2 4. State Code 5. Congressional District 6. State Name 7. Party Code 8. X Coordinate of Legislator 9. Y Coordinate of Legislator 10. Vote Code See Appendix for code lists and explanations. 4.2.0 Roll Call Options Options on particular roll calls. 4.2.1 Roll Call Information This provides detailed information on the currently selected roll call. This also includes a list of all legislators in the current house who are not shown (votes not available), the amount of legislators voting Yea, Nay, those not voting, D-NOMINATE scaling errors, and the P.R.E. for the roll call. 4.2.2 Statistics Voteview calculates various statistics on each roll call. These include the breakdown by party of the roll call votes and the number of [not mem., yes, paired yes, ann. yes, ann. no, paired no, no, {blank}, and present] votes. 4.2.2.1 Statistics Buttons Done Finishes displaying roll call statistics and returns to the Ideological map. Save Saves roll call statistics in a disk file (ASCII format). Print Prints the roll call statistics on a connected printer. Help Get detailed on-line help for this window. (Balloon Picture) Get balloon help for this window. 4.2.3 Cross Tab Statistics Statistics are available on cross-tabbed roll calls. This includes the breakdown of yea-yea, yea-nay, nay-yea, and nay-nay votes, as well as Yule's Q and Chi-Square statistics for each particular political party. Click on a party name to get these statistics for the party. 4.2.3.1 Cross Tab Statistics Buttons OK Finishes displaying roll call cross-tab statistics and returns to the Ideological map. 4.2.4 Inquire After selecting Inquire from the Options menu, a check appears beside the option to indicate that "inquire mode" is turned on until such time as it is turned off by selecting Inquire again (toggling). 1. Once "inquire mode" is on, clicking on any legislator token will pop up a window indicating the legislator name and state symbolized by the selected token. 2. Click OK to quit viewing the current legislator. Repeat as desired. 3. When finished, toggle the Inquire menu item to turn off "inquire mode." 4.2.5 Find Selecting this menu item pops up a window which allows the location of tokens symbolizing particular legislators. The list box contains the names of all legislators in the current House, and selected legislators are colored according to their vote on the selected roll call and color preferences. 1. Click on the desired legislator. 2. Click Start to locate the token (it will be circled in black). 3. Click Done to end the Find process. Note: Double-clicking on a legislator name is a short cut for clicking on the legislator and then clicking Start. 4.2.6 Attachments Select text, audio, or picture attachment to view any attachment that is associated with the selected roll call. All attachments must be located in the Voteview data directory along with other house files. The following format must be used in naming attachments in order to associate them with houses and roll calls: housenum_rollcallnum.extension Where housenum is the number of the House, rollcallnum the number of the desired roll call, and extension the proper file extension of the particular attachment (txt for text files, wav for audio files, and bmp for picture files). Note: Attachments associated with houses only (not also with roll calls) are in the format: housenum.extension Click OK to exit to the main ideological map window. 4.2.6.1 Text Attachments Only text, however, can be created, modified, and saved within Voteview. Simply type in the entry area of the Attachment window. The mini-text editor accepts the cursor location keys, ENTER, and TAB. Click save when done editing the text attachment. If you compose text attachments externally, they must be in regular ASCII format. 4.2.6.2 Audio Attachments If a sound card is installed in your system and is available for use, audio attachments for particular roll calls can be heard. Sound files must be in regular WAV format. Click on the play button to start audio playback, and the stop button to end playback. 4.2.6.3 Picture Attachments BMP format files can be attached to roll calls. These files can be at most 8 bit color (256 colors), and at most 470 X 280 in size (measured in pixels). 4.3 View Options You can skip around in the selected roll call queue by jumping to the next, previous, first, last, or user-selected roll call. D-NOMINATE scaling errors, legislators not voting, and a color key for Ideological map tokens can also be viewed. Note that the numbers for jumping to a user-selected roll call are ordinal; hence, jumping to '5' means jumping to the fifth roll call, not roll call #5. 5.0 US Map Display Voteview displays the current roll call (from the entire queue of selected roll calls) on a standard Congressional District Map of the United States. Each district is colored based on the vote of the legislator from that particular district and the current color preferences. The maps are from "The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States," by Kenneth C. Martis. Party code displays exactly match the atlas. 5.0.1 US Map Menu File Save as... Saves roll call data to a disk file in ASCII format. Spreadsheet Output Saves roll call data to a disk file in ASCII format ready for spreadsheet import. Print Prints roll call data to a selected printer. Print Map Prints the US map itself to a selected printer. Options Roll Call Info Displays detailed information about the currently displayed roll call. Cities Displays districts and their votes within major cities. Statistics Displays roll call statistics. Cross-Tab Statistics Displays roll call statistics for cross-tabulated roll calls. Inquire Toggles 'inquire' mode for discovering legislators on the Ideological map. Find Circles a particular legislator on an Ideological map. District Vote Breakdown Displays the breakdown of votes in multiple-member congressional districts. Text Attachment Views a text note (if any) that has been attached to this roll call. Picture Attachment Views a picture that has been attached to this roll call. Audio Attachment Plays a sound that has been attached to this roll call. Redraw Redraws the Ideological map from scratch. Ideological Map Displays the current roll call on a D-NOMINATE Ideological Map. Note: Checked attachments indicates their presence. View Next Skips to the next roll call in the selected roll call queue. Previous Skips to the previous roll call in the selected roll call queue. First Skips to the first roll call in the selected roll call queue. Last Skips to the last roll call in the selected roll call queue. Jump to... Jumps to a user-selected roll call in the selected roll call queue. Zoom Zooms into and out of the US Map, based on where the mouse is clicked. Center Centers display of the US map around where the mouse is clicked on screen. State Only Displays single states only instead of the entire US map. Color Key Displays the color key to the various symbols on the map. Help Explain Gives detailed help for this window. 5.0.2 US Map Buttons OK Finishes viewing roll calls on the Ideological map. 5.1 File Options See section 4.1 5.2.0 Roll Call Options Options on particular roll calls. 5.2.1 Roll Call Information See section 4.2.1. Note that errors and P.R.E. for the roll call are not available from the US map. 5.2.2 Cities Major cities with multiple congressional districts in the House of the selected roll call can be displayed with this option. Shadings are similar to the US map display. Click OK to exit the City window. 5.2.3 Statistics See section 4.2.2 5.2.4 Cross Tab Statistics See section 4.2.3 5.2.5 Inquire See section 4.2.4 5.2.6 Find See section 4.2.5. Note that located legislators are highlighted in blinking yellow. 5.2.7 District Vote Breakdown This reveals the vote breakdown of the House delegation from multiple-member congressional districts, expressed in "yea-nay" form. 5.2.8 Attachments See section 4.2.6 5.3 View Options See section 5.3 for Next, Previous, First, Last, and Jump To explanation. 5.3.1 Zoom This allows zooming in and out of the US map display to increase or decrease viewable detail. 1. Clicking on this menu item brings up a secondary menu. Click to select one of four types of zoom in the secondary zoom menu: large zoom in, large zoom out, small zoom in, and small zoom out. "Zoom mode" is turned on. 2. Click anywhere on the US map to execute the selected zoom action on that particular location. 3. Toggle "zoom mode" to off by clicking again on the selected zoom type or by using a keyboard shortcut. 5.3.2 Center After selecting this menu item, "center mode" is turned on. 1. Click anywhere on the US map to redraw the US map centered around the clicked location. 2. Toggle "center mode" to off by clicking again on the Center menu item. 5.3.3 State Only Only single states can be viewed on the US map display if desired. 1. Click the State Only menu item. This pops up the State selection window and activates "state mode." 2. Select the desired state from the list box by clicking. 3. Click OK to begin viewing the state. (Double-clicking on the state does the same thing) 4. Toggle "state mode" to off by clicking again on the State Only menu item. 5.3.4 Color Key Displays a five-panel color key to explain the shadings of the US map display. They are coded 1 through 5. Panel 2 through 4 are for multiple member districts. 1. Yea vote 2. More Yea than Nay 3. Equal Yea and Nay votes 4. More Nay than Yea 5. Nay Vote Appendix A - Issue Codes 21. Abortion/Care of deformed newborns 25. Agriculture 84. Airlines/Airports/Airline Industry 39. Alien and Sedition Laws 7. Amnesty (all wars) 12. Arms Control 23. B-1 Bomber 47. Banking and Finance 27. Breeder Reactor 4. Budget resolution 92. CIA/Spying/Intelligence 48. Campaign Contributions, Lobbying/House Ethics Campaign Laws 97. Central America 78. Children (aid, infant mortality, etc.) 20. Civil Rights/Desegregation/Busing/Affirmative Action 42. Civil Service and Patronage 11. Coal Mining Regulation/Strip Mining/Black Lung 87. Communists/Communism/Unamerican Activities 63. Congressional Pay and Benefits 51. Constitutional Amendments 29. Consumer Protection Agency/Consumer Protection 90. Debt Ceilings 54. Disputed Elections to Congress 45. Education 41. Election of House Officers 43. Election of the Speaker of the House 49. Electoral Votes 9. Emergency Fuel Assistance 96. Energy 67. Exchange Rates 82. Firearms 2. Fish and Wildlife 15. Food Stamps/Food Programs 1. Gasoline rationing/allocation 95. Handicapped 22. Homosexuality 88. Housing/Housing Programs/Rent Control 16. Human Rights 66. Humanitarian Assistance (foreign) 59. Immigration/Naturalization 75. Impeachment of President 38. Impeachments and Investigations 77. Interstate Commerce/Anti-trust/Restraint of Commerce 98. Iran 74. Judiciary 93. Korean War 32. MX Missile 56. Mediterranean Pirates 55. Military Pensions/Veterans Benefits 26. Minimum Wage 73. Minorities (non-black) 81. Narcotics 53. National Bank 28. Neutron Bomb 34. Nuclear Power 91. Nuclear Weapons 68. Nullification/Secession/Reconstruction 19. OSHA 14. Panama Canal 46. Parks and Conservation 85. Peace Movements/Pacifism/Anti-Military 17. Pollution and Environmental Protection 44. Presidential Impeachment 89. Price Controls 80. Public Health 37. Public Lands 76. Public Safety 60. Public Works 83. Radio/Television/Motion Pictures/Telecommunications 62. Ratio of Representatives to Population 40. Religion 31. SST 33. School Prayer 71. Science and Technology 35. Selective Service (The Draft) 24. Shipping/Maritime 52. Slavery 86. Social Security 6. South Africa/Rhodesia 94. Space Exploration/NASA 64. States Rights vs. Federal Government 65. Supreme Court 30. Taiwan (1979-80) 50. Tariffs 3. Tax rates 69. Temperance and Liquor 58. Treaties 13. U. N. 70. U.S. Currency 8. Unemployment/Jobs 10. Union Regulation/Davis-Bacon/Situs Picketing 36. Vietnam War 61. Voting Rights 79. WWI 18. Welfare 57. Whiskey Rebellion 5. Women's Equality 72. Workplace conditions/8 hour day Appendix B - Clausen Codes 1. Government Management 2. Social Welfare 3. Agriculture 4. Civil Liberties 5. Foreign and Defense Policy 6. Miscellaneous Policy Appendix C - Peltzman Codes 1. Budget General Interest 2. Budget Special Interest 3. Regulation General Interest 4. Regulation Special Interest 5. Domestic Social Policy 61. Defense Policy Budget 71. Defense Policy Resolutions 62. Foreign Policy Budget 72. Foreign Policy Resolutions 8. Government Organization 9. Internal Organization 10. Indian Affairs 11. D. C. Appendix D - Party Codes 1. Federalist 9. Jefferson Republican 10. Anti-Federalist 11. Jefferson Democrat 13. Democrat-Republican 22. Adams Democrat 25. National Republican 26. Anti Masonic 29. Whig 34. Whig and Democrat 37. Constitutional Unionist 40. Anti-Democrat and States Rights 41. Anti-Jackson Democrat 43. Calhoun Nullifier 44. Nullifier 46. States Rights Democrat 48. States Rights Whig 100. Democrat 101. Jackson Democrat 103. Democrat and Anti-Mason 104. Van Buren Democrat 105. Conservative Democrat 108. Anti-Lecompton Democrat 110. Popular Sovereignty Democrat 112. Conservative 114. Readjuster 117. Protection Tariff Democrat 118. Tariff for Revenue Democrat 119. United Democrat 200. Republican 202. Union Conservative 203. Unconditional Unionist 206. Unionist 208. Liberal Republican 212. United Republican 213. Progressive Republican 214. Non-Partisan and Republican 215. War Democrat 300. Free Soil 301. Free Soil Democrat 302. Free Soil Whig 304. Anti-Slavery 308. Free Soil American and Democrat 310. American 326. National Greenbacker 328. Independent 329. Ind. Democrat 331. Ind. Republican 333. Ind. Republican-Democrat 336. Anti-Monopolist 337. Anti-Monopoly Democrat 340. Populist 341. People's 347. Prohibitionist 353. Ind. Silver Republican 354. Silver Republican 355. Union Laborite 356. Union Labor 370. Progressive 380. Socialist 401. Fusionist 402. Liberal 403. Law and Order 522. American Labor 537. Farmer-Labor 555. Jackson 603. Ind. Whig 1060. Silver 1061. Emancipationist 1111. Liberty 1116. Conservative Republican 1275. Anti-Jackson 1346. Jackson Republican 3333. Opposition 4000. Anti-Administration 4444. Unionist 5000. Pro-Administration 6000. Crawford Federalist 6666. Crawford Republican 7000. Jackson Federalist 7777. Crawford Republican 8000. Adams-Clay Federalist 8888. Adams-Clay Republican 9000. Unknown 9999. Unknown